What Are Mental Disorders? 7 Types & Symptoms.

As a mental disorder, one can experience difficulties visualizing, thinking, learning, understanding, behaviour changes, and difficulty in understanding situations and mood fluctuations. Therefore, mental disorders or mental illnesses are also known as psychiatric disorders.

It is unknown what causes mental illness. But, as predicted, it can be through genetic or any depression trauma. A mental disorder is more of the result of how a person reacts, behaves, feels or thinks. Experts and doctors believe that the main reason could be the \’Nervous Breakdown\’ in humans.

What is \’Nervous Breakdown\’?

It indicates nervousness. The symptoms of being affected by \’Nervous Breakdown\’ in a human being are anxiety, emotional changes, fear, fast heartbeat, shortness of breath, nausea, irritation, worry, stress, and rapid thinking.


Seven types of mental disorders:

1. Anxiety Disorder

As a result of a Mental Disorder, a person with anxiety disorder usually experiences symptoms such as stress, nervousness, dizziness, fear, panic, and a fast heartbeat. Also, people with anxiety disorders fail to perform their work properly, and they become irritable very quickly. A person suffering from anxiety disorder starts sweating, overreacts to small situations, and experiences small triggers.

The following people are more likely to suffer from anxiety disorder: a person with a heart problem, a person with a thyroid issue, a person with family trauma, a person who feels shy around people, a lack of confidence, and a person with a traumatic childhood.


Four types of Anxiety Mental Disorders:

Panic Disorder- The feeling of fear, fast heartbeat, lots of sweating, and feeling of heart attack are some of the symptoms of Panic Disorder that generally occur according to age. Teenagers often get hunt through this disorder.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder(GAD)- The person feels a lack of concentration, trouble understanding things, is unable to sleep, becomes restless, irritable, and experiences muscle aches. In GAD, a person without any reason takes tension, thinks negatively about the future, and worries about their relatives and house. Also, they live each day as a burden in their life.

Separation Anxiety- The anxiety of children when they become so insecure about getting separated from their parents or their loved ones.

Specific Phobias- The very common phobia that many of us experience, for example, fear of heights, fear of riding a vehicle, and so on. So in simple terms, we can say, fear of your mind or fear of your thoughts.

As noticed by experts, females face anxiety disorders more often than males. Why? There is not much information on this point; however, this occurs due to hormonal changes in females, especially due to their monthly fluctuations in hormones and the fact that the treatment is not checked very frequently.

2. Depression Disorder

Researchers have found it the most common of all mental disorders. But luckily, this disease can be cured by proper treatment.

The symptoms of depression disorder include-

The embarrassing feeling, feeling of fatigue, random movement of the body, feeling guilty, unable to make decisions, low voice, suicidal thoughts, eating less food, and weight fluctuations are the few symptoms of Depression Disorder.

Mental Disorders

Eight types of depression disorders-

Clinical Depression: The disorder of low feeling. This mainly affects how and what you think, work, talk, behave, or respond to a situation.

PDD (Persistent Depressive Disorder): People affected by this disorder have to face it for at least 1-2 years. They cannot live happily, which also affects their relationship life. Sometimes, this disease can remain undetected for up to 2 months, but the symptoms reappear in the patient.

Bipolar Disorder: Rapid fluctuations and changes in thinking, sleeping, and mood swings are the symptoms of Bipolar Disorder. In normal circumstances, mood swings can occur every week.

PPD (Postpartum Depression): Pregnant women experience PPD. The symptoms are irritation which generally a pregnant woman feels. Also, the worry of children and family, taking everything very seriously, thinking of a particular situation a lot, panicking about small things, and feeling fatigued so fastly. Also, these symptoms generally start after a month of labour and can last until the first year of labouring.

SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder): Seasonal change depression occurs in people suffering from SAD experience it at the beginning of the rainy season. The symptoms can be seen until the winter. Symptoms include heavy legs and arms, relationship problems, and a need for carbohydrates.

Psychotic Depression: People suffering from this are unable to live in reality. They start thinking about those who do not exist and believe that particular thing is true. Therefore, one should take proper care of those suffering from this disease.

PMDD (Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder): This is a hormone-based disorder, which a girl generally experiences before and during her menstrual cycle. Physical symptoms can be seen, but anxiety, depression, stress, and behavioural changes are most common. These symptoms can last for several days before the menstrual cycle occurs. They disappear after seven days, and they can be seen 7-10 days before the next cycle.

Situational Depression: It arises as a result of illness, loss of friends, trauma in the family, retirement, divorce, or struggles in daily life. This disease makes every single day very hard for the affected patient to live.
Insomnia- Sleep disorders include insomnia, in which a person has difficulty taking proper sleep or is unable to sleep properly. Insomnia can be caused by stress, low energy, short-term sleep, menopause, heart disease, thyroid, and taking medications.


What are the symptoms of insomnia?

Using drugs like stimulants, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, medications, and herbs; the excessive use of sleep medications or frequent use of painkillers; cardiovascular disease; hormones shift mainly in females during menopause or menstruation; workload, life tension, fear, anxiety, stress, financial stress, a relationship issue, or emotional stress; gastrointestinal issues; neurodevelopmental disorder; asthma, back pain; radiation from phones and computers; autism, and dementia.

There are two types of insomnia-

Acute Insomnia: This is short-term insomnia that can last between a week to a month in which a person constantly feels sleepy due to changes in the environment, stress, fluctuations in temperature, an uncomfortable bed, a new job or college, examinations, and unfamiliarity.

Chronic Insomnia: This type of insomnia results from being unable to sleep for more than three days a week, which then affects the body\’s function, causing serious consequences. Psychological conditions can cause chronic insomnia, other than medications, stimulation of the nervous system or brain, ageing, and caffeine consumption.

There are also two types of them-
Primary Insomnia refers to a normal sleeping condition without any other underlying health issues.

Secondary Insomnia: This refers to a sleeping problem because of your health issues like- asthma, cancer, heartburn, medication, pain, or use of drugs.

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder disease in which people get confused between the real world and the imaginative world and behave unexpectedly or very weirdly. This is a chronic disease in which people become insecure about themselves, feel frightened, and even lose their reality touch.

What are the symptoms of Schizophrenia?

The lack of concentration, speaking less, less energetic, pleasure loss, untidy or unhygienic, emotionless or limitless emotions, difficulty in sleeping, and behavioural change, especially in teens.

What causes Schizophrenia?

It can depend on genetics (heredity), which are likely to transfer from parent to their child. Transmitters are not regulated in the brain, and nerve cells\’ pathways are uncontrolled.

Brain abnormalities are also a major problem characterized by a lack of proper brain structure. The viral infections can also lead to Schizophrenia, also the use of toxins, and considering any stressful situation.

PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)-
This mental disorder reminds a person of their terrific moment, an unforgettable scenario of life, serious issues, terrorist war, family loss, rape, sexual violence, disaster, or accident.
The people facing this disorder have a very disturbed mind; they become nightmares, always show negative reactions to any situation, and go to flashbacks.

Symptoms of PTSD-
You may become frightened of any situation, always feel in danger, have trouble sleeping, have anger, anxiety, irritability, aggressive behaviour, feel guilty, be incapable of concentrating, rarely enjoy your favourite thing, have no emotion, and only think negatively about yourself.


What you should avoid and should do during PTSD:

Never remind yourself of your traumatic issues.
Avoid visiting those places which remind you of your trauma.
Avoid thinking or meeting those people who remind you of trauma.
Instead, be with your loved ones and close friends.
Make an appointment whenever you have negative thoughts.

Eating Disorder-
Eating disorders are of three types- Bulimia, Binge, and Anorexia Nervosa. This eating disorder is an abnormal intake of food or meal that negatively affects your mental and physical health. It can be genetic, personality, idiosyncrasy, Brain, and CNS biology.

Bulimia Eating Disorder: In this, people fear gaining weight and generally eats more food than required by the body, which can be a serious issue, also they think of comments of being fatty, develops negative image about themselves, forceful vomiting, not eating in front of guest or other people, use of supplementary foods, more use of herbs, excessive exercise.

Binge Eating Disorder: People continuously eat food without feeling hungry for a very short period. This can also happen due to stress or emotional behavioural changes. Symptoms include eating alone because of shame, eating a lot at once without feeling comfortable, becoming averse to oneself, eating faster than usual.

Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorder: People tend to worry about gaining more weight, resulting in severe weight loss, and Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorder occurs. People having this disorder are generally not able to gain normal weight; they continuously take low carbs food, get fatigued easily, have the problem of constipation, dry skin, hair falling, low blood pressure, depressed mood, cutting of food into smaller pieces, consumption of diet pills.


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-

As this is one of the most common mental disorders in childhood, a child becomes aggressive, is unable to concentrate on things, can\’t pay attention, and can act instantly without thinking. In school, children tend to forget things, daydream, make small and careless mistakes, talk too much or talk too little, enjoy being alone, take on unnecessary tasks, and exhibit impulsive behaviour.

What can cause this disorder in children?

Injury of the brain.
Environmental risks.
Drinking alcohol and having tobacco during pregnancy.
Low birth weight of a child.
Premature birth.

READ ALSO: Effect of Study from Home on Student\’s Mental Health

FAQs !!

Can Mental Disorder Be Cured Without Medication?

No! not actually; none of the mental disorders can be cured without any medication. We cannot take a mental disorder as a normal disease or problem; instead, this is a very severe issue among the patient. Medications can only treat mental disorders. Otherwise, they can result in a great disaster for family and society. Along with medicines, you should help a patient to forget their past, not to revise their trauma, tell them to stay away from those with whom they have issues, encourage them to follow their passion, keep them happy, help them learn new things, tell them to do meditations and play along with them. All your small contributions can help them become healthy, fit, and happy.

As these seven mental disorders can lead to major chronic diseases, especially in children, we should take them very seriously, bearing in mind their symptoms and causes. In order for mental disorders to affect the mind and the health and daily life of an individual, proper medication should be taken. In addition, they should try to control their problems and see a doctor often. Additionally, the affected person should avoid taking the stress and should meditate, spend time with their loved ones, and ignore people who remind them of their past or any trauma.

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